- Reign of Cleopatra - Wikipedia
- Essay on The Reign of Cleopatra
- Cleopatra and Alexandrian War
- Cleopatra And Nefertiti : The King Of Egypt
Yet it is that one mistake that has made Cleopatra the misrepresented figure she is today. Had she chosen the right side or had Mark Antony won, history may have treated her very differently. Of course, it might have also meant she was forgotten.
Reign of Cleopatra - Wikipedia
Home Explore the BBC. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. BBC Local. Joyce Tyldesley. Coin from the reign of Cleopatra VII. Cleopatra Lyndsey Marshal and asp in Rome. Mark Antony bust The Bankes Collection. See Also History features History On bbc. Abolition Manchester: the slave trade and its abolition. Cleopatra belonged to the Ptolemaic family, a Greek family who originated from Macedonia, which ruled over Egypt during the Hellenistic era right after the death of Alexander the Great.
Ptolemies conversed in Greek throughout their reign, and they refused to learn the late Egyptian language, but Cleopatra learned the Egyptian language and always represented herself as the reincarnated goddess Isis. Ptolemy is one of the Diadochi who succeeded Macedonia after Alexander the Great died and he founded a dynasty which ruled Egypt for three centuries.
Political instability and centralization of power resulted in an uprising making the reign of Ptolemy XII the hardest reign in Egypt. Bernice was executed, and this resulted in Cleopatra VII becoming the joint regent and deputy to her father at age As accustomed, she got married to her brother, but she made it clear that she wanted to rule alone.
Therefore in 51 BCE, Cleopatra dropped the name of her brother from official documents and became the sole ruler with her face appearing on coins which was against the Ptolemaic traditions. She later got into a severe conflict with the Roman troop which was left behind to protect her father, and in 49 BCE, her short reign ended with her fleeing. Upon reaching the palace area, the only way to enter Caesar's presence was to conceal herself in such a manner without arousing suspicion of her brother's men.
The story of Cleopatra being rolled in a carpet, while false, is still true in essence. She was slipped into some bed coverings and presented to Caesar as a gift.
Though little is known of the actual meeting, it's quite clear that the young queen made an enormous impression on the great Roman. Though her 'beauty' is disputed, at worst probably plain of appearance Cleopatra was young and virile.
She was elegant and charismatic, but most of all, she had power and money, and Caesar probably supposed she was susceptible to manipulation. Caesar, at 52 years old and 35 years her elder, was easily seduced, or perhaps even seduced her, as Caesar's affairs were legendary anyway.
Essay on The Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra was politically brilliant and secured Caesar's loyalty, certainly not only through sexual pleasure, but through manipulation of her own. She was, and Caesar was well aware, the key to controlling the vast wealth of Egypt.
Caesar was, and she was well aware, the key to securing her place as Queen, and perhaps even Pharaoh, and the power of the gods. The next morning after their initial meeting, Ptolemy was scheduled to meet with Caesar. When he arrived, however, and saw Cleopatra standing with him, things immediately went sour.
Cleopatra and Alexandrian War
Ptolemy felt betrayed and attempted to flee the palace, but Caesar's men seized him, effectively placing him under arrest. It was quite apparent that Caesar clearly favored Cleopatra and was perhaps willing to make his decision after just the one meeting.
Though the people of Alexandria were furious over Roman presumption, Caesar acted quickly to secure the situation. He read Ptolemy XII's will in public in order to justify his actions, and then granted the island of Cyprus back to Egypt. Placing it under the control of Cleopatra's even younger siblings, Arsinoe IV and Ptolemy XIV won the temporary cessation of violence, but the machinations of Ptolemy's regent, Pothinus, were by no means over. Sometime in the confusion over what happened exactly when Caesar never even mentions the initial meeting with Cleopatra in the "Alexandrian War" , his general Achillas advanced on Alexandria and Caesar's small force, and the Alexandrian war was on.
Achillas and 20, men marched on Alexandria where Caesar waited with only 4, men. Caesar had little choice but to secure what he could and prepare for a siege. He maintained control of the palace and the nearby harbor, while Achillas took control of the surrounding city. Hard street fighting ensued with neither side being able to gain an advantage.
In late October, mid summer by season, the Egyptians attempted to secure the port and cut off Caesar's supply and potential escape. After bitter fighting, however, Caesar's men won the day, burning the Egyptian ships and securing the harbor.
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Unfortunately though, the fire spread into the city and damaged the Great Library, taking with it many unrecoverable documents. Nevertheless, Caesar discovered the involvement of Pothinus with the opposition and had him put to death, but Cleopatra's younger sister, Arsinoe IV, managed to escape the palace and join the Egyptian army. She, however, had a mind of her own and had little use for her brother's general Achillas.
She ordered him executed and turned over command of the Egyptian forces to her servant Ganymedes.
Cleopatra And Nefertiti : The King Of Egypt
Caesar was still hemmed in and ordered Pompey's former legion, under the command of Calvinus, to join him in Egypt with all haste. Ganymedes cut off the supply of fresh water to the Roman section of the town, and the legionaries were near panic. Caesar calmed them by having them dig fresh water wells, but the situation was still precarious. When Calvinus finally arrived, Caesar assembled his fleet and sailed out to meet the Egyptians. Winning a small engagement between about 30 ships on each side, it led him to attack the island fortress of Pharos. The situation was hotly contested and could've gone either way.