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  4. A Brave New Cairo? The Pharmacology of Ahmed Khaled Towfik’s “Utopia”

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What makes life worth living? (Part 1)

Continental Philosophy Poststructuralism in Continental Philosophy categorize this paper. Applied ethics. History of Western Philosophy. Normative ethics. Philosophy of biology. Philosophy of language. Philosophy of mind.

What Makes Life Worth Living On Pharmacology (豆瓣)

Philosophy of religion. Science Logic and Mathematics. Underlying these multiple symptoms is consumer capitalism, which systematically immiserates those whom it purports to liberate. Returning to Marx s theory, Stiegler argues that consumerism marks a new stage in the history of proletarianization.

It is no longer just labour that is exploited, pushed below the limits of subsistence, but the desire that is characteristic of human spirit. The cure to this malaise is to be found in what Stiegler calls a pharmacology of the spirit. Here, pharmacology has nothing to do with the chemical supplements developed by the pharmaceutical industry.

The pharmakon, defined as both cure and poison, refers to the technical objects through which we open ourselves to new futures, and thereby create the spirit that makes us human. By reference to a range of figures, from Socrates, Simondon and Derrida to the child psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott, Stiegler shows that technics are both the cause of our suffering and also what makes life worth living.

Passar bra ihop. Symbolic Misery, Volume 2 Bernard Stiegler. Poland, Czech Republic and Romania reported a relatively high level of use of computer-based alternatives. Invertebrates can be used to replace the more commonly used laboratory animals. The most used invertebrate species are Drosophila melanogaster , a fruit fly and Caenorhabditis elegans , a nematode worm. Drosophila melonogaster is a classic model used for detecting mutagenicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity.

The body of C. Further, the precise lineage of all the organism's cells can be studied. These organisms have short life cycle and can be studied in large numbers, a distinct advantage over the vertebrates. In spite of some obvious drawbacks like the lack of an adaptive immune system which is a deterrent for their use in certain types of research such as vaccine development, these organisms do have a potential as alternatives to use of conventional animals.

Similarly, fruit flies can be useful to identify novel virulence factors or pharmacologically active compounds. A recent vertebrate model, the Zebra fish has proven to a very good model for toxicity testing. These have been used and validated in large scale high throughput screens for various psychotropic drugs. Their use has increased in the past two decades and a population-based atlas of the zebra fish brain has recently been developed. Chemical administration can be done directly to fish water or by microinjection of small amounts of chemicals.

The morphological and molecular basis of tissue and organ development are, in general, either identical or similar to other vertebrates including man. Drug metabolism can also be studied in hydra, a eumetazoan diploblastic organism belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. Microdosing studies enable potential new drugs to be tested safely in humans using ultrasensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry. The time taken is months and this method is relatively cost effective. It provides excellent information about human metabolism.

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Howerver, it is also worthwile to consider the viewpoints that animal experiments provide an insight into the intricacies of drug action. The pharmacology of the drug unravelled during the preclinical phase of drug development is a prerequisite to understand the potential efficacy and safety of a new drug. On the other hand, experts also opine that while animal experiments may be a necessity for graduates of pharmacy or biosciences, their role is debatable for medical graduates as the objectives can be met with alternative evaluation methods.

It seems likely that these alternative methods and models will eventually replace intact animal models in pharmacology education, either partially or completely.


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  • Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario!

The stakeholders need to provide timely information and also upgrade undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum in pharmacology, taking these facts into consideration. They must not only initiate and encourage the projects for the development of alternatives in education but also ensure their implementation, by providing the requisite infrastructure in all institutions. In doing so, a broad consensus must be developed for removing or reducing the animal experiments from curriculum.

As technology advances, these alternatives, especially in vitro and in silico techniques would receive wide acceptance by researchers and regulatory bodies, as well. Whether the in vivo effect observed in animals can be compromised, and if the extrapolation should be entirely dependent on in vitro or in silico data, can be a matter of debate.

A Brave New Cairo? The Pharmacology of Ahmed Khaled Towfik’s “Utopia”

While a combination of newer in vivo and in vitro techniques do provide viable and cost-effective alternatives to certain pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic evaluations of drugs, animal testing is yet required for repeat dose toxicity, carcinogenicity of drugs and certain behavioral studies. Hence, it appears that animals are not entirely dispensable, especially in research, which reiterates the need to practice the principles of 4Rs in animal experimentation and intensify our efforts in developing and validating suitable alternatives to their use.

Source of Support: Nil. Conflict Interest: No. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Pharmacol v. Indian J Pharmacol.

Dinesh K. Badyal and Chetna Desai 1.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: Dr. Badyal, E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Introduction The mission of medicine is to eliminate suffering to maintain a good health, which may prolong the life. What is animal experimentation?

Number and types of animals used in experimentation About million animals ranging from zebra fish to non-human primates are used for experimentation every year. Contribution of animal experimentation to therapeutic discoveries The greatest drug discoveries in the 19 th and 20 th centuries were possible due to the use of animals. Open in a separate window. Primary uses of animals in experimentation Education Until some years ago, it was a common sight to see a hapless frog jumping under a pithing needle.

Research Animals have been used and are still permitted for screening for drugs, in bioassay and for preclinical testing including general and specific toxicity studies. Cosmetic testing Cosmetic testing on animals is particularly controversial and involves general toxicity, eye and skin irritancy, phototoxicity and mutagenicity. Ethics and animal use The debate surrounding animal use in experiments and teaching started way back in the 17 th century.

Whenever you consider ethical issues in animal experiments, critically analyze the following: Is the animal the best experimental system for the hypothesis to be tested?


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  6. Is the problem under review worth solving? Can pain and discomfort be minimised for the animal? Regulations for use of animals for experiments and research The first animal protection law to regulate animal testing was in enacted in in the British parliament, followed by the Cruelty to Animals Act Table 3 Laws and regulations for use of experimental animals in India. Examples include, established animal cell lines, animal cells, tissues and organs collected from animals sacrificed by a humane technique, abattoir material, invertebrates, such as Drosophila and nematode worms, larval forms of amphibians and fish until the stage where they become capable of independent feeding and bacteria, fungi etc[ 24 , 30 ] Reduction: Methods which minimize animal use and enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals or to obtain more information from the same number of animals.

    Examples include, improved experimental design and statistical analysis, modern imaging techniques, avoiding repetitions of tests to prove established hypothesis and sharing data and resources[ 24 , 25 ] Refinement: It refers to decreased invasiveness, improved instrumentation, improved control of pain which minimize actual or potential pain, suffering and distress. A few examples of these alternatives are: i.